s

1^

EEPOET

OF THE

FIFTY-FIEST MEETING

OF THE

BRITISH ASSOCIATION

FOR THE

ADVMOEMENT OF SCIENCE;

HELD AT

YORK IN AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER 1881.

LONDON : JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMA-M.E STREET.

1882.

■Office of the Association: 22 Ai-BEMAhi treet, London, W.

LONDON : PBISTED BTf

SPOTTISWOODE AXU CO., NEU'-STKEET SQCABB

AND PAIlLIAilEST STREET

CONTENTS.

Page Objects and Rules of the Association xxv

Places and Times of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxxii

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- mencement xxxix

Evening Lectvu*es lii

Lectures to the Operative Classes liv

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the York Meeting ly

Treasurer's Account , Ivii

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings Iviii

Officers and Council, 1881-82 Ix

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixi

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports and Researches in Science Ixiii

Synopsis of Money Grants ]xx

Places of Meeting in 1882 and 1883 Ixxi

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for Scientific Purposes Ixxii

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxxii

Address bv the President, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres. L.S 1

EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Professor (5at- LEY, and Professor Salmon, for the calculation of Tables of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms 55

Rt^port on Recent Progress in Hydrodynamics. Part I. By W. M. Hicks, M.A : 57

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Professor RoscoE, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, and Br. Schuster (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of collecting information vyith regard to Meteoric Dust, and to consider the question of uudertakiDg regular observations in various

localities ". 88

a2

iv CONTENTS.

Page Second Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Samuel Haughton, M.D., F.R.S., and Benjamin Williamson, F.R.S., appointed for the Cal- culation of Smi-heat Coefficients. Drawn up by Dr. Haughton 89

Fourteenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Etekett, Pro- fessor Sir William Thomson, Mr. G. J. Stmons, Professor Ramsat, Pro- fessor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Professor G. A. Leboue, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, Mr. G. F. Deacon, ISIi-. E. Wethered, and Mr. A. Strahan, appointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Tem- perature downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Everett (Secretary) 90

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. H. Darwin, Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, Pro- fessor Purser, Professor G. Forbes, and Mr. Horace Darwin, appointed for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 93

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Captain Abney, Professor W. G. Adams, and Professor G. Carey Foster, appointed to carry out an Investigation for the purpose of fixing a Standard of White Light 126

Final Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel, Pro- fessor W. E. Ayrton, Professor P. M. Duncan, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. J. T. Dunn, and Professor J. Perry, on Experiments to determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation 126

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Heywood, F.R.S., Mr. William Shaen, Mr. Stephen Bourne, Mr. Robert Wilkinson, the Rev. W. Delany, Professor N. Story IVIaskelyne, M.P., F.R.S., Dr. Stlvanus P. Thompson, ISIiss Lydia E. Becker, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Mrs. Augusta Webster, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. (Secretary), on the manner in which Rudimentary Science should be taught, and how examinations should be held therein, in Elementary Schools 148

Thii-d Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. C. Williamson and Mr. W. H. Baily, appointed for the purpose of investigating the Tertiary Flora of the North of Ireland. Drawn up by William Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.R.I.A. (Secretary) 152

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Dr. W. R. E. HoDGKiNsoN, Mr. W. Carleton Williams, and Dr. P. P. Bedson (Secre- tary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Method of Determining the Specific Refraction of Solids from their Solutions 155

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thom- son, Dr. J. Merrifield, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred (Secretary), Mr. J. F. Deacon, and Mr. Rogers Field, appointed for the purpose of obtaining information respect- ing the Phenomena of the Stationary Tides in the English Channel and in the North Sea ; and of representing to the Government of Portugal and the Governor of Madeira that, in the opinion of the British Association, Tidal Observations at Madeira or other islands in the North Atlantic Ocean would be very valuable, with a view to the advancement of our knowledge of the Tides in the Atlantic Ocean 160

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. M. Duncan, F.R.S., and Mr. G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on Fossil Polyzoa. Drawn up by Mr. Vine (Secretary) 161

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, the lale Professor RoLLBSTON, Mr. Pye-Smith, Professor Htjxlet, Dr. Oakpenter, Dr. Gwy»

CONTENTS.

Page Jeffreys, Mr. F. M. Baifottb, Sir C. Wtvilie Thomson, Professor Rat Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), ap- pointed for the purpose of aiding? in the maintenance of the Scottish Zoo- logical Station ^^.•. ^''

.eport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. M. Foster, Professor Roileston, Ml-. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. ScLATER, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Sir C. Wytille Thomson, Professor Rat Lankester, Professor Allman, and Mr. Percy Sladen (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of arranging for the occupation of a Table at the

Zoological Station at Naples ^'^

teport of the Committee, consisting of 1VL-. J. A. Harvie Brown, Mr. John OoEDEAUX, and Professor Neayton, appointed at Swansea for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and Brethren of the Tnnity House, and'^of the Commissioners of Northern Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting on the

same, at York, in 1881 ^°^

leport of the Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Colonel Godwin-Austen, Dr. G. Hartlaub, Sir J. Hooker, Dr. Gunther, Mr. Seebohm, and Mr. ScLATER, appointed to take steps for investigating the Natural Histoiy of

Socotra ^^*

.Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. Sclater, Mr. Howard Saunders, and Mr. Thiselton Dyer, appointed for the purpose of investigatmg the

Natural History of Timor-laut 19'

Report on the Marine Fauna of the Southern Coast of Devon and ComwaU.

By Spence Bate, F.R.S., and J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S 198

Report of tlie Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Ramsat and Professor John Milne (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of investigating the

Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 200

N^inth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, Professor T. McK. Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Professor T. G. Bonnet, the Rev. H. W. Ceossket, Dr. Deane, and Messrs. C. E. De Rance, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, W. Pengellt, W. MoLTNEUX, H. G. FoRDHAM, and W. Terrill, appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary 204 Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Leith Adams, the Rev. Professor Haughton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Dr. John Evans, appointed for the purpose of exploring the Caves of the South of

Ireland 218

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir F. J. Bramwell, Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. St. John Vincent Dat, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. Abel, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, Mr. Macrort, Mr. H. Trueman Wood, Mr. VV. H. Barlow, and Mr. A. T, Atchison, ap- pointed for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council on Patent

Legislation 222

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Mr. F. Galton, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook (Secretary and Reporter), Sir G. Campbell, Dr. Farr, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Major-General Pitt-Rivers, Mr, J. Park Harrison, Mr. James Hetwood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Dr. F. A. Mahomed, Dr. Muirhead, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr, Charles

Roberts, and the late Professor Rolleston 225

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Leone Levi, Mr. Stephen

VI CONTENTS.

Page BoTJENE, Mr. Brittain, Dr. Hancock, Professor Jevons, and Mr. F. P. Fellows, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into and reporting on the present Appropriation of Wages, and other sources of iucome, and considering how far it is consonant with the economic progress of the people of the United Kingdom. Drawn up by Professor Leone Levi 272

Report of a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., E. J. LoAVE, F.R.S., Professor R. S. Ball, F.R.S., Dr. AV alter Flight, F.G.S., and Professor A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S., on Observations of Luminous Meteors dxiring the year 1880-81 290

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Professor G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S., Professor Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S. (Secretary), on Mathematical Tables 803

Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. Hull, the Rev. H. W. Orosskey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. James Glaisher, Professor G. a. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. G. II. Morton, Mr. W. Pengelly, Professor J. Prestwich, Mr. J. Plant, Mr. James Parker, Mr. I. Roberts, Mr. S. Stooke, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. W. Whitaker, aud Mr C. E. De Rance (Reporter), appointed for the purpose of investigating the Cir- culation of the Underground Waters in the Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, and Permian Formations of England, and the Quality and Quantity of the Water supplied to towns and districts from these formations 309

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Dewar, Dr. Williamson, Dr. Marshall Watts, Captain Abney, Mr. Stoney, Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor McLeob, Professor Carey Foster, Professor A. K. Huntington, Professor Emerson Reynolds, Professor Reinold, Professor LivEiNG, Lord Rayleigh, Dr. Arthur Schuster, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of reporting upon the present state of our Knowledge of Spectrum Analysis 317

Interim Report of the Committee for constructing and issuing practical Standards for use in Electrical Measurements, the Committee consisting of Professor G. Carey Foster, Mr. (!. Hockin, Professor Sir William Thom- son, Professor Ayrton, Mr. J. Perry, Professor W. G. Adams, Lord Rayleigh, Professor F. Jenkin, Dr. O. J. Lodge, Dr. John Hopkinson, Dr. MuiRHEAD, Mr. W. II. Preece, and Mr. Herbert Taylor 423

On some New Theorems on Curves of double Curvature. By Professor Sturm 440

Observations of Atmosplieric Electricity at the Kew Obsenatory during 1880. By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc, F.R.A.S'., F.M.S., Superintendent 443

On the Arrestation of Infusorial Life by Solar Light. By Professor John Tyndall, F.R.S ■. 450

On the Effects of Oceanic Currents upon ('limates. By the Rev. Samuel Haughton, M.D., F.R.S 451

On Magnetic Disturbances and Earth-currents. By Pi'ofessor William Grylls Adams, F.R.S 463

On some applications of Electric Energy to Horticultural and Agricultural purposes. By C. Wm. Siemens, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Mem. Inst. C.E. 474

On the Pressure of Wind upon a Fixed Plane Surface. By Thomas Hawks- ley, C.E., F.R.S 480

On the Island of Socotra. By Bayley Balfour, Sc.D., M.B., Regius Pro- fessor of Botany, University of Glasgow 482

On some of the Developments of Mechanical Engineering during the last half-century. By Sir Frederick Bramwell, V.P. Inst. C.E., F.R.S 494

TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS.

•Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE.

THURSBAT, SEPTEMBER 1.

Page

Address by Professor Sir William Thomson, M. A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L.

and E., President of the Section ol8

1. On the Possibility of the Existence of Intra-Mercurial Planets. By

Balfour Stewart, LL.D., F.RS 51^

;2. On the Photographic Spectrnm of Comet 'b' 1881. By William

HuGGiNS, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S 520

3. On a Prismatic Optometer. By Tempest Anderson, M.D., B.Sc 521

•i. On the Eftects of the Lunar and Solar Tide in increasing the Length of

the Sidereal Day. By the Rev, Samuel Haughton, M.D., F.R.S o2.j

6 On the Effects of Oceanic CuiTents upon Climates. By the Rev. Samuel

Haughton, M.D., F.RS 523

. 6. On some applications of Electric Energy to Horticultui-al and Agricul- tural purposes. By Dr. C. Wm. Siemens, F.RS 524

7. On Hydrocarbons in the Solar Atmosphere. By Captain Abnet, R.E.,

F.R.S. 524

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2

Physical Department.

I . On Surface-tension and Capillaiy Action. By Professor Osborne Rey- nolds, F.RS 524

.2. On some Colour Experiments. By Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 526

-3. On a Question in the Theory of Lighting. By Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 526

4. On some uses of Faure's Acciunulator in connection with Lighting by

Electricity. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M. A., F.R.S 526

5. On the Economy of Metal in Conductors of Electricity. By Professor Sir

William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 526

6. On the proper Proportions of Resistance in the Working Coils, the Electro-

Magnets, and the External Circuits of Dynamos. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S ^ 528

7. On the Application of Electricity to the Localisation of a Bidlet in a Wound. By W. H. Preece, F.RS 531

8. On some of Bell and Taint«r's recent Researches and their Consequences.

By W. Lant Carpenter, B.A., F.C.S 5.31

VIU CONTENTS.

Pag& 9. On the Electric Conductivity and Dichroic Absorption of Tourmaline. By Professor SJivANUs P. Thojipson, B.A., D.Sc 531

10. On the arrangement of Cometic Perihelia with reference to the Sun's

march in space. By Henkt'Mtjirhead, M.D 532

Mathematical Depaetment.

1. Second Report of the Committee appointed for the calculation of Tables

of the Fundamental Invariants of Algebraic Forms 532

2. Report of the Committee on Mathematical Tables 532:

3. Report on Recent Progress in Hydrodynamics. Part I. By W. M. Hicks,

M.A ; 532

4. Sur un criterium de Steiner relatif a la theorie des sections coniques. Par

M. Halphen 532

5. Some new Theorems on Curves of double Cur^'ature. By Professor

SlTTEM 534

6. On Oongruencies of the Second Order and Second Class. By Dr. T. Akchee Hiesx, F.R.S 5.J4

7. Sur les faisceaux de forme biquadratique binaire ayant une meme Jacobienne. Par Cyparissos Stephanos 534

8. On a Diagi-am connected with the Transformation of Elliptic Functions.

By Professor Catlet, F.R.S 534

9. A partial Differential Equation connected with the simplest case of Abel's

Theorem. By Professor Catlet, F.R.S 534

10. On the Differential Equations satisfied by the Modular Equations. By

Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A,, F.R.S 5-35

11. On the q-Series in Elliptic Functions. By J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 535

12. On the Elucidation of a Question in Kinematics by the aid of Non- Euclidian Space. By Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S 535'

13. On a Theorem relating to the Description of Areas. By William WooLSET Johnson, Professor of Mathematics ui the Naval Academy, Annapolis, U.S 536

14. On the Equation of the Multiplier in the Theory of Elliptic Transforma- tion. By Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 538

15. On a Linear relation between two Quadratic Surds. By Professor

H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 538

16. On a Class of Binodal Quartics. By Professor R. W. Genese, M.A 538

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3.

1. On a Class of Differential Equations. By Professor Halphen 538

2. On the Aspects of Points in a Plane. By Professor Halphen 538

3. On a Connection between Homographies in a Straight Line and Points in a Space. By Ctpaeissos Stephanos 5.38

4. On Involutional (1 1) Correspondence. By Professor Genese, M.A 539

5. On the Velocity Function of a Liquid due to the Motion of Cylinders and

Surfaces of Revolution. By A. G. Greenhill 540

CONTENTS. IX

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

Physical Department.

Page

1. Report of the Committee ou Meteoric Dust 540

2. Report of the Committee ou Tidal Observations in the English Channel

and the North Sea 540

3. Report of tlie Committee on Underground Temperature 540'

4. Report of the Committee on the Calculation of Sun-heat Coefficients 540

5. Observations of Atmospheric Electricity at the Kew Observatory during

1880. By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc, F.R.A.S 540

6. On a Universal Sunshine Recorder Stand. By G. M. Whipple, B.Sc,

F.R.A.S 640

7. On the Calibration of Merciuial Thermometers by Bessel's Method. By Professors T. E. Thobpe, Ph.D., F.R.S., and A. W. RticKEE, M.A 540'

8. On the General Coincidence between Sun-spot Activity and Terrestrial

Magnetic Disturbance. By the Rev. F. Howlett, F.R.A.S 541

9. On Magnetic Disturbances and Earth-currents. By Professor W. Gkylls Adams, F.R.S 542

10. On the Arrestation of Infusorial Life by Solar Light. By Professor John Tyndall, F.R.S 543

11. On a new Integrating Anemometer. By the Rev. J. M. Wilson, M.A., and H. S. Hele Shaw 643

12. On the Isothermals of the British Isles. By Alex. Buchan, M.A., F.R.S.E 644

13. On the Diurnal Period of Hailstorms. By Axex. Buchan, M.A.,

F.R.S.E 544

14. On the Sunspot Period, and Planetary Tides in the Solar Atmosphere.

By F. B. Edmonds 544

15. Some Laws which regulate the Succession of Mean Temperature and Rainfall in the Climate of London. By H. Oottetenat Fox, M.R.C.S.... 644

16. On the Blowing Wells near Northallerton. By Thomas Fairley,

F.R.S.E 544

17. Some Remarks on Artificial Flight. By Feed. W. Breaeey, Hon. Secretary of the Aeronautical Society 545

18. On the desirability of observing Occultations of Stars, of the first and other bright magnitudes, from places where they are to be seen near the horizon. By H. S. Williams, M.A., F.R.A.S 547

Mathematical Department.

1. Sur la representation des rotations autour d'un point par des points de

I'espace. By Cyparissos Stephanos 547

2. On the Polar Planes of a point with respect to four Quadiic Surfaces.

By W. Spoxtiswoode, M..\., Pres. R.S 547

8. On the Extension of the Theory of Screws to the Dynamics of any material system. By Robert S. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S., Royal Astronomer of Ireland * 647

4. Ou a Property of a small Geodesic Triangle on any surface. By Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S 64*

X CONTENTS.

Page

5. On the General Analogy between the formulaB of singly and doubly Periodic Functions. By" J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S 548

6. Sur les Stjries Hyperg^ometriques. By Professor Halphen 551

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6.

1. Report of the Oommittee on Electrical Standards 551

2. Report of the Oommittee for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance

of Gravity 551

3. On the Rainfall Observations made upon York Minster by Professor John Phillips, F.R.S. By G. J. Stmons, F.R.S 551

4. On Yolta-Electric Inversion. By Professor Silvantjs P. THOiirsoN, B.A., D.Sc 552

6. On the Rotational Coefficient in various Metals. By E. H. Hall 552

6. On a Dynamometer Coupling. By Professors W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., and John Perry, B.E 553

7. On an Early Attempt at a Secondary Batterv. By Dr. C. W. Siemens, F.R.S : 554

■8. On an Electro-Ergometer. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 554

9. On a Problem in Stream Lines. By Professor A. W. Ruckek, M.A 554

10. On Potential due to Contact. By S. Lavington Hart, B.A., D.Sc,

Scholar of St. John's CoUege, Cambridge 555

11. On the Electric Discharge through Colza Oil. By A. Macfarlane, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E 556

12. Representation graphique de la Formule des Piles. Discussion. Par le Profe.?seur 0. M. Gariel, Agreg6 de Physique a la Faculte de Medecine

de Paris, IngiSnieur des Ponts et Chauss(5es 556

13. On an Easy Method of making Carbon Cells for Galvanic Batteries.

By W. Symons, F.C.S : 557

14. On an Antimonized Cellular Carbon Galvanic Battery. By \V. Symons, F.C.S 557

16. On the Absolute Sine Electrometer. By Professor G. M. Minchin, M.A. 558

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7.

1. Report of the Committee on a Standard of White Light 559

•2. Report of the Committee on Luminous Meteors 559

3. Report of the Committee on the Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 559

4. A Contribution to the History of the Algebra of Logic. Bv the Rev. R. Harley, F.R.S ." 559

6. On the Illuminating Powers of Incandescent Vacuum Lamps with measured Potentials and measured Currents. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S., and James T. Bottomley, M.A 559

6. On Photometry, with Experiments. By Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S .561

7. On the Dynamical Theory of Radiation. By Professor Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S 661

8. On a New Electrometer and some preliminary Experiments on Voltaic

Action. By J. Brown 562

CONTENTS. XI

Page 9. On a Wave Apparatus for Lecture purposes, to illustrate Fresnel's concep- tion of Polarised Light. By C. J. Woodward, B.Sc 563

10. On a Microscope with arrangements for illuminating the sub-stage. By Edward Ceosslet, F.R.A.iS 563

11. On a New Polarising Prism. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc 563

12. On an Overlapping Spectroscope. By James Love, F.R.A.S., F.G.S. ... 564

13. On Change of Density at the Melting Point. By James Love, F.R.A.S., F.G.S. 564

14. On Drops and Capillarity. By Dr. T. Woods 565

16. On Binaural Audition. Part III. By Professor Silvanus P. Thompson,

B.A., D.Sc 565

16. On Diflerential Resolvents. By the Rev. Robert Haeley, F.R.S 565

17. An Analvsis of Relationships. By A. Macfarlane, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.E.' 566

Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.

1. Report of the Committee on the Method of Determining the Specific Refraction of Solids from their Solutions 567

2. On a Process for Utilising Waste-products and Economising Fuel in the Extraction of Copper. By J. Dixon 567

3. On Metallic Compounds containing Bivalent Hydrocarbon Radicals. PartlL ByJ. Sakttrai 567

Address by Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., V.P.O.S.,

President of the Section 568

4. On the Chemical Action between Solids. By Professor T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S 580

6. On the First Two Lines of Mendelejeif s Table of Atomic Weights. By W. Weldon, F.R.S.E •. 580

6, On the Occlusion of Gaseous Matter by Fused Silicates at High Tem- peratures, and its possible connection with Volcanic Agencies. By

L LowTHiAN Bell, F.R.S 680

7. On the Siliceous and other Hot Springs in the Volcanic District of the North Island of New Zealand. By Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S 580

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.

1. Second Report of the Committee upon the present state of our Knowledge

of Spectrum Analysis 582

2. On thQ Fluid Density of certain Metals. By Professor W. Chandler RoBEETs, F.R.S., and T. Wrightson 682

3. On the Oxides of Manganese. By V. H. Velet, B. A 682

4. On the Inferences deducible from high Molecular Weights, as exhibited by the Oxides of Manganese. By Professor W. Odling, F.R.S 582

5. On Manganese Nodules, and their Occurrence on the Sea-bottom. By

J. Y. Buchanan 583

6. On Brewing in Japan. By Professor R. W. Atkinson, B.Sc. (Lond.) ... 685

Xll CONTENTS.

Page-

7. On Peppermint-camphor (Menthol) and some of its Derivatives. By- Professor K. W. Atkinson, B.Sc. (Lond.), and H. Yoshida 585'

8. On the Sodiimi-alum of Japan. By Professor Edward DrvERS, M.D. ... 586

9. On the Occurrence of Selenium and Tellurium in Japan. By Professor Edward Divers, M.D 586

10. On the Chrome Iron Ore of Japan. By Professor Edward Divers, M.D. 587

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

1. On certain Points in Modern Progress in Chemical Knowledge. By Professor H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S 589

2. On the alleged Decomposition of the Elements. By Professor Dewar, M.A., F.R.S 589'

3. On the Production of Crystals hy the Action of Metals in Carbon Disul- phide in Sealed Tubes. By Philip Braham, F.O.S 589-

4. On the Separation of Hydrocarbon Oils from Fat Oils. By Alfred H. Allen, F.C.S 589

5. On some Phenomena which appear to be of the Nature of Ohemico-

Magnetic Action. By William Thomson, F.R.S.E 590'

6. On the Specific Refraction and Dispersion of Light by Liquids. By J. H.

Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S 591

7. On Molecular Attraction. By F. D. Brown, B.Sc 592

8. Note on a new Method of Measuring certain Chemical Affinities 592

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBEB 6.

1. On the present state of Chemical Nomenclature. By Professor A. W.

AVilliamson, Ph.D., F.R.S 593

2. On Alterations in the Properties of the Nitric Ferment by Cultivation.

By R. Warington, F.C.S 693

3. On the Eifect of the Spectrum of Silver Chloride. By Captain Abney, R.E., F.R.S 594

4. Some Remarks on Crystallogeny. By Professor J. P. Cooke 595

5. On the Action of Zinc and Magnesium on Acidified Solutions of Ferric Sulphate. By Professor T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S 595

6. On the Reducin? Action of Zinc and Magnesium on Vanadium Solutions.

By Professor H. E. Roscoe, LL.D., F.R.S 596

7. On the Determination of the Relative Atomic Weights of Manganese, Oxygen, and Silver. Bv Professor Dewar, M.A., F.R.S., and A. Scott, B.A., B.Sc ". 596

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7.

1. On Some Vapour Density Determinations. By Professor Dewar, M.A.,

F.R.S., and A. Scott, B.A., B.Sc 597

2. On Vapour Density Determinations. By Professor Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S. 597

3. Note on the Phosphates of Lime and Ammonia. By J. Alfred Wankltn 597

4. On a New System of Blowpipe Analysis. By Lieut.-Colonel Ross 598

5. On Colliery Explosions. By William Galloway 598

6. On the Double Iodide of Mercury and Copper. By Professor Silt anus

P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc '. 600

CONTENTS. Xlll

Page

7. Analyses of the Water and Gas from Blowing Wells near Northallerton.

By T. FAiRLET,r.R.S.E 601

8. On Experiments with Manures on the Barley Crop of 1881. By W. IvisoN Macadam 602

9. On the Hydration of Salts and Oxides. By C. F. Cross, B.Sc 602

10. On Cellulose and Coal. By C. F. Cross, B.Sc, and E. J.Bevan 603

11. On the New Element, Actinium. By Dr. T. L. Phipson, F.C.S 603

12. On Bowkett's Thermograph. Bv Wm. Lant Carpenter, B.A., B.Sc, F.C.S '

604

Section C— GEOLOGY.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.

Address hy Andrew Crombie Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., President

of the Section 605

1. On the Laurentian Beds of Donegal and of other parts of Ireland. By

Professor Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the Geological

Survey of Ireland 609

2. On the Laurentian Rocks in Ireland. By G. H. Kinahan, M.R.I.A., &c. 609

3. Life in Irish and other Laurentian Rocks. By C. Moore, F.G.S 610

4 On the occurrence of Granite in situ, about 20 miles S.W. of the Eddy- stone. By A. R. Hunt, M.A., F.G.S 610

6. Some Ohservations on the Causes of Volcanic Action. By Professor J.Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S 610

■6. The Comiection between the Intrusion of "Volcanic Rock and Volcanic Eruptions. By Professor Sollas, M.A., F.R.S.E 613

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.

1 On the Influence of Barometric Pressure on the Discharge of Water from Springs. By Baldwin Latham, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., F.M.S 614

:2 Glacial Sections at York, and their relation to the later deposits. By J. Edmund Clark, B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S 614

3. On the Bridlington and Dimlington Glacial Shell-beds. By G. W. Lamplugh 616

4. On Sections of the Drift obtained from the new Drainage Works of Drif- field. By J.R.Mortimer 617

5. On the Subsidences above the Permian Limestone between Hartlepool and Ripon. By A. G. Cameron, Geological Survey of England and Wales 617

G The Glacial Deposits of West Cumberland, By J. D. Kendall, C.E., F.G.S 617

7 On Simosaurus pusillus (Fraas), a step in the Evolution of the Plesio- sauria. By Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.L.S 618

:8. On a Restoration of the Skeleton of Archfeopterj'x, with some remarlis on the differences between the Berlin and London specimens. By Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.L.S 616

XIV CONTESTS.

SATURBAY, SEPTEMBER 3.

Page

1. On Asterosmilia Reedi, a new species of coral from the Oligocene of Brockenhurst, Hants. By Professor P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S 618

2. On tlie Strata between the Chillesford Beds and the Lower Boulder Clay,

'The Miindesley and Westleton Beds.' By Professor J. Prestwich, M.A., F.E.S 620

3. On the Extension into Essex, Middlesex, and other Inland Counties, of the Mundesley and Westleton Beds, in relation to the age of certain hill- gravels and of some of the valleys of the South of England. By Pro- fessor J. Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S 620

4. A preliminary account of the working of Dowkerbottom Cave, in Craven, during August, 1881. By E. B. Poulxon, M.A., F.G.S 622

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

1. Seventh Report on the Circulation of the Underground "Waters in the

Jurassic, New Red Sandstone, and Permian Formations of England, and the Quality and Quantity of the Water supplied to various towns and districts from these formations 623

2. Third Report on the Tertiary (Miocene) Flora of the Basalt of the North

of Ireland 623

3. On the Formation of Coal. By Edward Wethered, F.G.S., F.C.S....... 623

4. Preliminary Remarks on the Microscopic Structure of Coal. By Professor

W. C. WlLLLAMSON, F.R.S 625

5. On the Halifax Hard Seam. By W. Cash, F.G.S 626

6. Researches in Fossil Botany. By Ja jies Spencer 627

7. Notes on Astromyelou and its root. By James Spencer 628

8. On the Palaeozoic Rocks of North Devon and West Somerset. By W. A.

E. UssHER, F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 629

9. The Devono-Silurian Formation. By Professor E. Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. 631

10. Ou Evaporation and Eccentricity as Co-factors in Glacial Periods. By

the Rev. E. Hill, M.A 631

11. On the Discovery of Coal-Measures under New Red Sandstone, and on the so-called Permian Rocks of St. Helen's, Lancasliire. By A. Strahan, M.A., F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 632

12. On the Upper Bagshot Sands of Hordwell Cliff, Hampshire. By E. B.

Tawney, M.A., F.G.S 633

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6.

1. Ninth Report on the EiTatic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland 633

2. Report on Fossil Polyzoa 633

3. On ' Flots.' By J. R, Daktns, M.A., Geological Survey of England and

Wales ." 034

4. Remarks upon the Structure and Classification of the Blastoidea. By

P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A 634

5. On the Characters of the ' Lansdnwn Encrinite ' (Millericrinus Prattii,

Gray, sp.) By P. Herbert CiRPEXTER, M.A 635

6. On the Lower Keuper Sandstone of Cheshire. By A. Strahan, M.A.,

F.G.S., Geological Survey of England and Wales 6.35

7. On a Discovery of Fossil Fislies in the New Red Sandstone of Nottingham.

By E. Wilson, F.G.S 637

CONTENTS. XV

Page 8. On the Rbietics of Nottingliamsbire. By E. Wilson, F.G.S 637'

9 The Great Plain of Northern India not an old Sea-basin. By W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c 638.

10. The Gold Fields, and the Quartz-outcrops of Southern India. By

"William King, Deputy Superintendent (for Madras), Geological Survey

of India 639

11. On the Geology of the Island of Cyprus. By R. Russell, C.E 640'

12. Observations on the two types of Cambrian beds of the British fsles (the

Caledonian and Hiberno-Cambrian), and the conditions under which they were respectively deposited. By Professor Edwaed Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. 642-

13. On the Lower Cambrian of Anglesea. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A., F.G.S 643.

14. On the Gnarled Series of Amlwch and Holvhead in Anglesea. By

Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A., F.G.S " .". 644

15. The Subject-matter of Geology, and its Classification. By Professor

W. J. Sollas, M.A., F.G.S 644'

16. On the Exploration of a Fissure in the Mountain Limestone at Raygill.

By James W. Davis, F.G.S., F.L.S 645

17. On the Zoological position of the genus Petalorhynchus, Ag., a Fossil Fish from the Mountain Limestone. By James W. Davis, F.G.S., F.L.S 646

18. On Diodontopsodus, Davis, a new genus of Fossil Fishes from the

Mountain Limestone, at Richmond, in Yorkshire. By James W. Davis, F.G.S., F.L.S 646

WHBi^BSBA Y, SEPTEMBER 7.

1. Report on the Earthquake Phenomena of Japan 646

2. A Contribution to Seismology. By John Milne, F.G.S., and Thomas Gray, B.Sc, F.R.S.E 646

3. Final Report on the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing

especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation 647

4. On an International Scale of Colours for Geological Maps. By W. ToPLEY, Geological Survey of England and Wales 647

5. On the Glacial Geology of Central Wales. B}- Walter Keeping, M.A., F.G.S., Keeper of the York Museum 648

6. On some points in the Morphology of the Rhabdophora. Bj'' John HorKiNsoN, F.L.S., F.G.S '. 649

7. On some Ores and Minerals from Laurium, Greece. By H. Stopes, F.G.S. 650'

8. Notes on the Cheshire Salt-field. Bv C. E. De Rancb, F.G.S., Assoc.

Inst. C.E '. 650

9. On some sections in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the Craven District.

By J. E. Marr, B.A., F.G.S 650.

Section D.— BIOLOGY. Department of Zo6logy and Botany.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.

Address by Richard Owex, C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.,

F.G.S., F.Z.S., President of the Section Qh\

:XV1 CONTENTS.

Page 1. Eeport of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural History of Socotra -. 661

:2. Report of the Committee for the Investigation of the Natural History of Timor-laut 661

3. Report on the Record of Zoological Literature 661

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.

1, Jurassic Birds and their Allies. By Professor 0. C. M.uisH 661

5. On the use of the Chitinous Elements or Appendages of the Oheilosto- matous Polyzoa in the Diagnosis of Species. By Geoese Busk, F.R.S. 662

3. On the Botany of Madagascar. By J. G. Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S 663

4. On the Colours of Spring Flowers. By Alfred W. Bennett. M.A.,

B.Sc., F.L.S 666

5. On the Constancv of Insects in their Visits to Flowers. By Alfred W. Bennett, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S 667

'6. On the Mode in which the Seed of Stipa biu-ies itself in the groimd. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S 668

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3.

1. On the Insect House in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. By P. L. ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Zoological Society of London 668

:2. On the Birds which have bred in the Barnslej- and South Yorkshire District. By Thomas Lister ' 670

.3. On the Foot of Birds, and on the Use of the Serrated Claw. By Philip M. C. Kermode 670

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

1. On the Anatomy and Classification of the Petrels, based upon those collected by H.M.S. ' Challenger.' By W. A. Forbes, BA., F.L.S., F.Z.S 671

■2. On some Permanent Larval Forms among the Crinoidea. By P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A 671

3. Note on the British Comatulee. By P. Herbert Carpenter, M.A 672

4. On the Affinities of Proueomenia. By Dr. A. A. W. Hubrecht 673

.5. Report on the Migration of Birds 675

6. On some Points in the Development of Osmunda reyalis (Linn.). By Chas. p. Hobkirk, F.L.S 675

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6.

1. On the Sense of Colour among some of the Lower Animals. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S 676

2. Report of the Committee on the Zoological Station at Naples 677

3. Report of the Committee on the Sc'ottish Zoological Station 677

4. On our present Knowledge of the Fauna inhabiting British India and its

Dependeiicies. By AV. T. Blanford, F.R.S 677

.6. On a Fossil Stem from the Halifax Coal-measures. By Thomas Hick, B.A., B.Sc, and William Cash, F.G.S 679

CONTENTS. XVU

Pago

6. Notes on Chlamydomyxa. By P. A. Geddes 680

7. On a New Sub-Glas3 of Infusorians. By P. A. Gctdes 680

8. On the Improvement of Freshwater Fisheries. By Lieut.-General Sir

James E. Alexander, Knt., O.B., F.R.S.E 680

9. On some Vestiges of the Ancient Forest of part of the Pemiine Chain.

By Joseph Lucas 680

10. Eeport on the Marine Fauna of the Southern Coast of Devon and Corn- wall 681

Department op Anthropology.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.

Address by Professor W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.RS., F.R.C.S., F.L.S., F.G.S.,

Pres. Z.S., Chairman of the Department 682

1. Eeport on the Exploration of the Caves of the South of Ireland 689

2. On the Stature of the Inhabitants of Hungary. By Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S.. 689

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.

1. The Viking's Ship, discovered at Sandefjord in Norway, 1880. By J. Harris Stone, M.A., F.L.S., F.C.S 689

2. On Excavations in the Earthwork called Danes' Dyke at Flamborough,

and on the Earthworks of the Yorkshire Wolds. By Major-General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly Colonel Lane-Fox) 690

3. On the Application of Composite Portraiture to Anthropological purposes.

By Francis Galton, F.RS 690

4. Account of the Discovery of Six Ancient Dwellings, found under and near to British Barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds. By J. R. Mortimer... 691

5. On the Oi-igin and Use of Oval Tool-stones. By W. J. Knowles 692

-6. On the Discovery of Flint Implements in stratified gravel in the Nile ^^aUey, near Thebes. By Major-General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly Colonel Lane-Fox) 693

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3.

1. Report of the Anthropometric Committee 693

2. On a Collection of Racial Photographs. By J. Park Harrison, M. A 693

3. On Scandinavian and Pictish Customs on the Anglo-Scottish Border. By

Dr. PHENfi, F.S.A., F.R.G.S 693

4. On some Objects recentlv exhumed in Britain, of apparently Phoenician origin. ByDr.PnENE,'F.S.A., F.R.G.S 69-5

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5.

1. Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Mankind. By Miss A. W.

BUCKLAND 69o

2. On the Papuans and the Polynesians. By C. Staniland Wake 096

•3. On Excavations in a camp called Ambresbiu-y Banks in Epping Forest. By Major-General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. (formerly Colonel Lane-Fox) ... 697

4. On the Relation of Stone Circles to Outlying Stones or Tumuli or Neigh- bouring Hills, with some inferences therefrom. By A. L. Lewis 097

1881. a

Xviii , CONTENTS.

Page 5. Notes on some specimens of Saw-cuts and Drill-holes in hard Stones of

Pi-ime\- al Egyptian period . By W. Flinders Peieie 697

G. On the Numeral and Philological relations of the Hebrew, Phoenician, or Canaanitic Alphalxjt and the Language of the Khita Inscriptions. By Hyde Clarke 698

7. The Early Colonisation of Cyprus and Attica, and its relation to

Bahylonia. By Hyde Clarke 69&

8. On the Animism of the Indians of British Guiana. By Everaed F. im Thurm 699

9. Origin and Primitive Home of the Semites. By G. Bertln 699

10. On the Utilisation of the Memory. By George Harris, LL.D., F.S.A. 699

11. On the Cultivation of the Senses. By George Harris, LL.D., F.S.A... 690

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6.

1. Traces of Man in the Crag. By H. Stopes, F.G.S. 70O

2. Tlie Results of recent further Excavations in the Caves of Cefn, near

St. Asaph, North "Wales. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A., and INIrs. Williams Wynn 700

3. Exhibition of a Roman Bronze galeated Bust. Bv Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A ". 701

4. Exhibition of Foiu- Bronze Soclieted Spears, probably ancient, from

Chma. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A. .=> , 701

5. On a supposed Inscribed Stone, near Llanerchymedd, in Auglesea. By Professor T. McK. Hughes, M.A 701

6. On some late Celtic Engra^angs on a Slate Tablet, found at Towyn. By

J. Park Harrison, M.A 701

7. On the Physical Characters and Proportions of the Zulus. By C. Roberts, F.R.C.S., and George W. Bloxam, M.A., F.L.S., Assistant Secretary of the Anthropological Institute 702

8. Exhibition of Stone Implements from Asia Minor. By Hyde Clarke ... 703

9. On certain Discoveries of Bronze Implements in and about Leeds. By John Holmes 703

10. On the Profile of the Danes and Germans. By J. Park Harrison, M.A. 703

11. On a remarkable Human Skull found near York. Bv Edward Allen,

F.G.S 704

Department of Anatomy and Physiology.

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2.

Address by Professor J. S. Burdon Sanderson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Chair- man of the Department 705

1. On the Development of the Colour-sense. By Dr. Montagu Lubbock ... 715